Chrystal Ho Pao, PhD

Professor of Biology
Chair, Department of Biology and Chemistry

Faculty Since 1998


BA University of California, Berkeley, CA (1991)
PhD, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (1997)


[email protected]

Dr. Ho Pao worked at Genentech Inc., a biotechnology company, as an intern and researched on the efficiency of producing human proteins in animal cells. Her graduate research involved constructing mouse models of two human diseases with the techniques of genetic engineering. She also participated in a project locating a human gene pertinent for proper bone development. As a postdoctoral research fellow, she investigated molecular cues specifying the precise neuronal connections between the eyes and the brain in experimental subjects including mice and ferrets. She has published articles in scientific journals including: Science, Nature Genetics, Journal of Clinical Investigation, Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neurobiology, Journal of Cellular Physiology, Brain Research Bulletin, NeuroReport, and Journal of Neuroscience Research. Dr. Ho Pao’s publication record attests to the broad spectrum of her technical skills in human genetics and molecular biology.

Selected Publications

Ho Pao, Chrystal, Sou-Cheng T. Choi, Shu Yun Lok, Storm Dorrough, Connie Abelseth, Joyce Shelton, Angelo Rentas. 2021. Inquiry-Driven Bioinformatics Laboratory Research Module: Metagenomic Study of Student Oral Microbes. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education 22(2) e00136-21

Leamey, C. A., Ho-Pao, C. L., Sur, M. 2003. Role of calcineurin in activity-dependent pattern formation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the ferret. Journal of Neurobiology 56 (2): 153-62.Komuves, L., Oda Y., Tu, C. L., Ho-Pao, C. L., et. al. 2002. Epidermal expression of the full-length extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is required for normal keratinocyte differentiation. Journal of Cellular Physiology 192 (1): 45-54.

Leamey, C. A., Ho-Pao, C. L., Sur, M. 2001. Disruption of retinogeniculate pattern formation by inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase. Journal of Neuroscience 21 (11): 3871-80.

Kovacs, C. S., Ho-Pao, C. L., Hunzelman, J. L., et. al. 1998. Regulation of murine fetal-placental calcium metabolism by the calcium-sensing receptor. Journal of Clinical Investigation 101 (12): 2812-20.

Ye, C., Ho Pao, C. L., Kanazirska, M., Quinn, S., Brown, E. M., Vassilev, P. M. 1997. Deficient cation channel regulation in neurons from mice with targeted disruption of the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor gene. Brain Research Bulletin 44 (1): 75-84.

Vassilev, P. M., Ho Pao, C. L., Kanazirska, M., Ye, C., Hong, K., Seidman, C. E., Seidman, J. G., Brown, E. M. 1997. Cao-sensing receptor (CaR)-mediated activation of K+ channels is blunted in CaR gene-deficient mouse neurons. NeuroReport 8 (6): 1411-6.

Ye, C., Ho Pao, C. L., Kanazirska, M., Quinn, S., Rogers, K., Seidman, C. E.,Seidman, J. G., Brown, E. M., Vassilev, P. M. 1997. Amyloid-Beta Proteins Activate Ca2+-Permeable Channels Through Calcium-Sensing Receptors. Journal of Neuroscience Research 47 (5): 547-554.

Kovacs, C. S., Ho Pao, C. L., Seidman, C. E., Seidman, J. G., Lanske, B., Kronenberg, H. M. 1998. Regulation of fetal-placental calcium metabolism by the calcium sensing receptor. Journal of Clinical Investigation 101 (12): 2812-20.

Lanske, B., Karaplis, A. C., Lee, K., Luz, A., Vortkamp, A., Pirro, A., Karperien, M., Defize, L. H. K., Ho, C., Mulligan, R. C., Abou-Samra, A-B., Jüppner, H. Segre, G. V., Kronenberg, H. M. 1996. PTH/PTHrP receptor in early development and Indian Hedgehog-regulated bone growth. Science 273: 663-666.

Ho, C., Conner, D., Ladd, D., Kifor, O., Brown, E., Seidman, J. G., Seidman, C. E. 1995. A mouse model for Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia and Neonatal Severe Hyperparathyroidism. Nature Genetics 11: 389-394.

Tsukurov, O., Boehmer, A., Flynn, J., Nicolai, J-P., Hamel, B., Traill, S., Zaleske, D., Mankin, H., Yeon, H., Ho, C., Tabin, C., Seidman, J. G., Seidman, C. 1994. A complex bilateral polysyndactyly disease locus maps to chromosome 7q36. Nature Genetics 6:282-286.

Cachianes, G., Ho, C., Weber, R. F., Williams, S. R., Goeddel, D. V., Leung, D. W. 1993. Epstein-Barr virus-derived vectors for transient and stable expression of recombinant proteins. Biotechniques 15

Awards, Affiliations, and Achievements

  • President’s Teaching Award, Trinity International University
  • National Research Service Award, National Institute of Health
  • Albert J. Ryan Fellowship
  • American Academy of Religion
  • National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship in Neuroscience, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


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